The 22 month old developmental milestones we will discuss in this article
In this post about 22 month old developmental milestones, we will speak about weight and height, speech and language, speech, motor skills, imitation and potty training.
Weight and height developmental milestones in a 22 month old child
At 22 months, girls will weigh about 25.4 pounds girls, while boys will weigh 25.9 pounds. A boy will be about 33.9 inches high while girls will be about 33.4 inches tall.
Speech and language developmental milestones in a 22 month old child
Language development continues. The child now begins to understand simple words and phrases such as “what’s your name,” and “smile.” The ability to distinguish between positive and negative words is being developed at this time. The child will therefore respond “yes” to affirm something and “no” or “not good” to indicate the negative.
At this time, the child will better understand complex instructions like “Go get your toys from bed”. Words also become clearer and babbling reduces.
Babbling is another outstanding developmental feature around this time. Research conducted at the University of Missouri shows that babies’ repetitive babbles are mainly motivated by infants’ ability to hear themselves (Science Daily, 2015).
Babies’ brains rehearse speech mechanics months before they are able to speak
In the previous post, we discovered that children may be able to speak earlier than it was previously thought. Human capacity for speech and language is highlighted in this study by University of Washington researchers (Science Daily, 2014).
Researchers found that speech sounds stimulate areas of the brain that coordinate and plan motor movements for speech in children as young as 7- and 11-month-old. These results show that the brain begins to map speech sounds. It would be interesting to discover what happens in the brains of even younger children. However, we can infer that even newborns can map sounds with speech.
According to lead researcher Patricia Kuhl”
“Most babies babble by 7 months, but don’t utter their first words until after their first birthdays … finding activation in motor areas of the brain when infants are simply listening is significant, because it means the baby brain is engaged in trying to talk back right from the start and suggests that 7-month-olds’ brains are already trying to figure out how to make the right movements that will produce words.”
The results emphasize the importance of talking to children during social interactions even if they are unable to respond. Kuhl’s words made me wonder what happens in the womb:
“Hearing … talk exercises the action areas of infants’ brains, going beyond what we thought happens when we talk to them .. infants’ brains are preparing them to act on the world by practicing how to speak before they actually say a word.”
Importance of parantese or exaggerated speech in child language development
Parantese or exaggerated speech is another importance mechanism which triggers brain activity and language development in young children. The study used slow and exaggerated parentese speech such as — “Hiiiii! How are youuuuu?” Researchers found that In response, infants uttered sounds like “Ahhh bah bah baaah.”
Therefore, parantese may prompt infants to try to synthesize utterances themselves and imitate what they heard. According to Kuhl.
“parentese is very exaggerated, and when infants hear it, their brains may find it easier to model the motor movements necessary to speak,”
Effect of background noise on speech developmental milestones
Researchers have discovered that environmental conditions affect how children learn. A University of Wisconsin-Madison study found that the presence of background noise in the home or at school makes it more difficult for toddlers to learn new words. However, this could be overcome by providing additional language cues to help young children overcome the effects of noisy environments (Science Daily, 2016).
In the study, 106 children aged 22 to 30 months took part in three experiments. They were taught the names of unfamiliar objects then tested on their ability to recognize the objects when they were labeled.
The toddlers also listened to sentences featuring two new words. Subsequently, they were taught to match the objects with the correct names, then were tested on recall of the words and their matching objects. Finally, the toddlers were tested on their ability to recall the words.
This is how the experiments were conducted:
In the first experiment, 40 toddlers aged 22 to 24 months, heard either louder or quieter background speech when learning the new words. Only toddlers who were exposed to the quieter background speech successfully learned the words.
In the second experiment, a different group of 40 toddlers aged 28 to 30 months, was tested to determine whether somewhat older children could better overcome the effects of background noise. Again, these older children were able to learn the new words when background noise was quieter.
In the third experiment, 26 older toddlers were first exposed to two word labels in a quiet environment. Next, the toddlers were taught the meanings of four word labels — two they had just heard and two new ones. Toddlers were taught the meanings of all these labels in the same noisy environment that impaired learning in the second experiment. The children learned the new words and their meanings only when they had first heard the labels in a quiet environment, suggesting that experience with the sounds of the words without distracting background noise helps children subsequently map those sounds to meaning.
The results of this study should therefore be of great use in the homes and educational institution.
Effect of play with other children on language development
University of Waterloo researchers found that toddlers who were exposed to other children, for example in daycare, may be particularly good at certain word learning skills. The researchers came to this conclusion by comparing word processing skills of toddlers who spend most of their time with adults against those who had more exposure to groups of children. Their study paid attention to the degree to which toddlers understood the speech of other children.
One of the key study findings was that toddlers who spent more time with others were better able to associate new words with new objects (Science Daily, 2019). This study confirms the importance of interaction for toddlers in places like day care centers.
22 month old motor development
Twenty two month old children enjoy walking backwards, balancing on one foot with support from a chair or wall and kicking a ball, walking backwards, and perhaps even balancing on one foot while holding onto a sturdy chair or wall.
Imitation in 22 month old children
Imitation of others’ behavior appears at this time. A 22-month-old mainly imitates his or her parents and other adults. He or she repeats phrases and words that they hear. A Concordia University study found that babies who enthusiastically imitate their parents develop a sense of right and wrong earlier than those who don’t (Science Daily, 2004).
The study measured imitation in children who were 14 and 22 months old. Mothers demonstrated simple actions and asked their children to copy them. As they did so, the researchers recorded how much, and how eagerly, each child imitated his or her mother.
The children’s imitation was tested again at 33 and 45 months old. The focus in the study at this time was conscience development. The children played games designed to be impossible to win by following the rules and were watched to see whether they cheated. In another test designed to measure guilt, an apparently valuable object fell apart as soon as each child handled it.
The results showed that children who eagerly imitated their mothers were more likely to follow the rules. Those children were also more likely to show guilt when they broke something up to two-and-a-half years later.
The researchers concluded that eager imitation reflects a relationship in which both mothers and children are highly responsive to each other. It is that kind of relationship that can give conscience development a boost.
Key role of fathers in childrens’ cognitive development
Finally, we are going to examine the key role of the father in the cognitive development of his child. A very important study found that “fathers who interact more with their children in their first few months of life could have a positive impact on their baby’s cognitive development” (Science Daily, 2017).
Researchers from the Imperial College London, King’s College London and Oxford University studied the impact pf fathers interaction at three months of age and the impact infants’ cognitive development more than a year later.
n the study, researchers recorded video mothers and fathers playing with their three month old children without toys. The same groups were then studied at a book-reading session when the children were years of age. The videos of the children at 3 months old and two years old videos were observed independently by two different groups of trained researchers.
The cognitive development of the 2 year old toddlers was scored with the Standardised Bayley Mental Development Index (MDI). The MDI scores on tasks such as recognising colours and shapes.
Researchers found a positive relationship between the degree to which fathers engaged with their babies and their child’s score on the tests. Fathers with more positive outlooks were also more likely to have babies who performed better on the MDI scales.
The positive link between involved fathers and higher infant MDI scores were seen equally whether the child was a boy or a girl. This scientific evidence strengthens the call for involvement in the cognitive development of children.
American Psychological Society. (2004, October 28). Toddlers’ Imitation Predicts Well-Developed Conscience. ScienceDaily. Retrieved October 14, 2019 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2004/10/041027113855.htm
Imperial College London. (2017, May 9). Dad’s involvement with baby early on associated with boost in mental development. ScienceDaily. Retrieved October 23, 2019 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2017/05/170509083936.htm
Society for Research in Child Development. (2016, July 21). Background noise may hinder toddlers’ ability to learn words. ScienceDaily. Retrieved October 23, 2019 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/07/160721072605.htm
University of Missouri-Columbia. (2015, October 22). Babies’ babbles reflect their own involvement in language development: Infants are motivated by hearing themselves. ScienceDaily. Retrieved October 23, 2019 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/10/151022125740.htm
University of Waterloo. (2019, July 10). How does playing with other children affect toddlers’ language learning?. ScienceDaily. Retrieved October 23, 2019 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/07/190710103150.htm
University of Washington. (2014, July 14). Months before their first words, babies’ brains rehearse speech mechanics. ScienceDaily. Retrieved October 23, 2019 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/07/140714152311.htm